Pond fish farm
For each fish farm must be created its own technological scheme taking into account the strengths and weaknesses of a particular company. Choosing the most effective technology – the first and most important step towards the creation of fish farms.
Depending on the area of the reservoir, its other features the scheme is chosen for its operation. For example, a pond of large area is not effectively stocking of commercial fish. It is more profitable to conduct ichthyological work on the formation of such a species composition of ichthyofauna, which will be the most attractive for fishermen. For waterfront small area is easier to create a high density of valuable fish species and to maintain the desired strength by periodic delivery.
After the preparatory work and perform the required tests prepare the documents necessary to set up a farm. The primary document is a Fish breeding and biological justification, on the basis of which further prepare other documents.
We can distinguish three main types of fish farms with high level of intensification of production
Pond fish farms
Industrial fish-breeding plant, usually with a closed water system
Pond fish farms
Pond fish farming is the main type of fish hatcheries in our country. They were created primarily for the cultivation of carp and herbivorous fish. Farms located in zones 4-5 fish culture conducive to growing heat-loving fish, is able to obtain large and relatively cheap fish, but in the southern regions of the country are very widely rasprostranena diseases such as rubella carp, lernos, philometroides and others. In this regard, to take fish from the South for stocking ponds for fee fishing is not recommended.
Farms located in zones 1-2 fish farming, do not have time to grow large fish for 2 years, and are forced to work on a three-year cycle. This increases the cost of production, and problems with the harsh winter of planting material contribute a large element of risk. All pond fish farms have to spend heavily on repairs and maintenance of the pond Fund.
Some of the conditions conducive to the profitable management of pond fish farms below.
1. Source of water supply sufficient power with good quality water all year round.
2. Gravity water ponds of all categories.
3. Well being on fish diseases.
4. The correspondence between the climatic zone in which the farm is located, and cultivated species.
5. A stable source of stocking material (pitana private part or the ability to purchase quality planting material).
6. The availability of convenient entrances, paved roads inside the farms.
7. The presence of fish ponds, pools and other structures, allowing to contain and sell marketable fish all year round.
8. Availability of own distribution network for live fish or processed products.
9. Availability of own vehicles ivorine enough for cultivated production and importation of fish from other farms.
If You decide to build, buy, or rent farms, or You’ve been engaged in pond fish farming, but not satisfied with economic outcomes if You have a pond, but have not decided how to use it, consult with experts. We will protect You from unnecessary costs and show you how to organize or modernize production.
Feature sadkovich fish farms are exceptionally low costs to create them and correspondingly fast return. The positive features include simple control over farmed fish, the small footprint cages, convenient maintenance. Cage farming can be very effective and with incomplete production cycle.
The disadvantages are the dependence on temperature, hydrochemical and hydrological mode of a reservoir, in which cages are installed, the inability to use (with some exceptions) of the natural forage base of the reservoir.
In our country common cage farms are generally of two types: brown trout cage farming in the North-West and in other regions, where it is possible to grow trout in the summer, and warm-water cage farms in reservoirs-coolers TPP, NPP and TPP. In these farms are grown in winter trout, and in summer – sturgeon, carp, American channel catfish.
Almost not common among us river cage culture farms, although it is on the river thanks to the advantages of cages are particularly strong. Obviously, cage farms due to the simplicity of organization and low initial cost are of the greatest interest to farmers, have decided to engage in fish farming.
Among sadkovich farms there are many thriving businesses, although there are many examples of failed their operation.
Of particular importance is the selection of the reservoir and location of cages.
Not necessary to have full system management. The cultivation of fish in cages is the most flexible technology. It allows you to organize cost-effective production even where it seems impossible.
Refer to specialists, and You will save yourself from repeating the mistakes of others and will quickly come to economic prosperity.
Industrial fish-breeding installations with the closed water system (RUSU)
The peak of development of farms of this type peaked in the 70 – 80ies of the last century. In the USSR there were dozens of fish installations. However, in the early twenty-first century left very few enterprises. The main reason for closing RUSU – high operating costs and low reliability. However, in recent years, interest in RVSV increases. A more reliable technique, changes of market conjuncture.
The advantages industrial farms with closed (circulating) water is:
* optimum temperature throughout the year;
* the ability to control most parameters of the environment;
* full protection against adverse weather factors and as a consequence of all this high speed fish growth.
Disadvantages of industrial fish breeding enterprises are as follows:
* high initial investment;
* the need for uninterrupted power supply, Autonomous power supply sources;
* additional costs for pumping water;
* the cost of water heating;
* the cost of water treatment (biological and mechanical cleaning);
* the necessity of using pure oxygen, because air aeration is usually not possible to provide optimal growing conditions and maximum densities of planting;
* reusable water, as a rule, inferior to the pure natural water on a number of parameters (nitrite, ammonia nitrogen, БКП5, bacterial contamination, etc.) that, ultimately, can affect physiological condition and taste of farmed fish;
* the need for constant monitoring of hydrochemical regime;
* the complexity of the control system of biological treatment;
* very high requirements for qualification of personnel;
* the rapidity of the infectious process, additional difficulties in the fight against parasitic and infectious diseases of fish
Eventually get the fish tends to be considerably more expensive than that grown in open ponds or cages, sometimes yielding to the latter in quality.
At the same time, the industrial installation can be effective, for example, in the production of planting material of sturgeon fish breeding of sturgeon for commercial calves, when combined with the growing overexposure of marketable fish, as well as in several other schemes. For example, the concept of preservation of rare species of sturgeon has been implemented through the creation of industrial installations with the closed water supply. A very promising such water supply schemes of industrial farms, which exclude biological treatment, as such.